Medicare is the largest public health insurance service provided by the U.S. Federal government.
All American citizens and some permanent residents that meet certain requirements are eligible for Medicare Part A when they reach at the age of 65. They must sign up for and pay a monthly premium for Part B.
The main differences between rich and poor countries with respect to causes of death:
In high-income countries more than two thirds of all people live beyond the age of 70 and predominantly die of chronic diseases: cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancers, diabetes or dementia. Lung infection remains the only leading infectious cause of death.
In middle-income countries, nearly half of all people live to the age of 70 and chronic diseases are the major killers, just as they are in high-income countries. Unlike in high-income countries, however, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and road traffic accidents also are leading causes of death.
In low-income countries less than one in five of all people reach the age of 70, and more than a third of all deaths are among children under 15. People predominantly die of infectious diseases: lung infections, diarrhoeal diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Complications of
pregnancy and childbirth together continue to be leading causes of death, claiming the lives of both infants and mothers.
Urine is made up of excess water and waste products that have been filtered by kidneys from the body. Its natural light yellow color is due to excretion of a pigment found in your blood called urochrome.
If you are healthy, the color should be a pale yellow to gold. Normal urine color varies, depending on how much water you drink. Fluids dilute the yellow pigments in urine, so the more you drink, the clearer your urine looks; when you drink less, the color becomes more dark or yellow. Most people need
to empty their urine up to eight times a day; pregnant women and older people usually have to go more often than others. If you notice you suddenly have to pee more often than usual, though, it could be a sign of a health problem like a
urinary tract infections (UIT), diabetes, an enlarged prostate in men, vaginitis in women, or a problem with the wall of your bladder called interstitial cystitis.
Bloody urine is common in urinary tract infections (UIT) and kidney stones. These problems usually cause pain; painless bleeding might signal a more-serious problem, such as cancer.
Red or pink urine can be caused by (1) diseases, such as urinary track infections, enlarged prostate, kidney cysts, and kidney or bladder stones; (2) foods, such as beets, blackberries and rhubarb); and (3) medications, such as Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) used to treat tuberculosis, and phenazopyridine
(Pyridium - a drug that numbs urinary tract discomfort), and laxatives containing senna. Red or pink color can also be caused by your long-distance running.
Orange urine can result from medications, such as anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine (Azulfidine);
phenazopyridine (Pyridium); some laxatives; and certain chemotherapy drugs. Orange urine along with light-colored stools can indicate the liver disease or bile duct.
If your urine is dark or orange along with pale stools and yellow skin and eyes, your liver might be malfunctioning.
Blue or green urine can be caused by (1) colored food dyes and dyes used for some tests of kidney and bladder function; (2) medications, such as amitriptyline, indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex) and propofol (Diprivan); and (3) medical conditions, such as familial
benign hypercalcemia, and UIT caused by pseudomonas bacteria.
Brown urine can result from (1) food, such as fava beans, rhubarb or aloe; (2) medications, such as antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl)
and nitrofurantoin (Furadantin), laxatives containing cascara or senna, and methocarbamol — a muscle relaxant; and (3)
medical conditions, such as liver and kidney disorders, kidney damage and urinary tract infections; and extreme exercise that leads to muscle injury.
Cloudy white urine can be caused by urinary tract infections and kidney stones.
Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos, which is a mineral that was used in the United States. Mesothelioma is diagnosed in approximately 2,500 Americans each year with a
life expectancy of twelve months to eighteen months from the time of diagnosis. There are four types of mesothelioma: pleural, peritoneal,
pericardial, and testicular, which impact the cavity of lung, abdomen, heart and testes, respectively.
Pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma are the most common ones.
Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels; approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1, for which the body does not produce insulin; the rest 90% are type 2, for which the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function.
The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal,
male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. It was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world have diabetes, including around 29.1 million people in the United States.
Polydipsia is the medical term for extreme thirst, which does not improve no matter how much a person drinks. It is not a disease by itself but can be an important symptom of certain health problems, such as diabetes.
Common diabetes mellitus symptoms include polydipsia, polyuria, extreme and uncontrolled hunger, blurred vision, extreme fatigue or lack of energy, genital itching, slow healing of wounds or cuts, weight change (gain or loss), frequent or returning infections, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. One in nine Americans age 65 and older has Alzheimer's disease. Of the 5.4 million Americans with Alzheimer's, an estimated 5.2 million people are age 65 and older, and approximately 200,000 people are under age 65.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious health problems if it is not treated. The name for the disease, ‘syphilis’, originates from an epic Latin poem Syphilis, sive morbus gallicus, ‘Syphilis, or the French disease'.
The disease started with genital ulcers, then progressed to a fever, general rash and joint and muscle pains, then weeks or months later were followed by large, painful and foul-smelling abscesses and sores, or pocks, all over the body. Muscles and bones became painful, especially at night. The sores became ulcers that could eat into bones and destroy the nose, lips and eyes. They often extended into the mouth and throat, and sometimes early death occurred.
Before the introduction of Penicillin in 1943, Syphilis killed 1000's people each year. The first Syphilis epidemic was occurred in Naples, Italy (called ‘Disease of Naples’) in 1495. When Syphilis first surfaced, the English named it the ‘French disease’, the French called it the ‘Spanish disease’, Germans named it the ‘French evil’, Russians called it ‘Polish disease’, Poles called it ‘Turkish disease’, Turks called it
‘Christian disease’ and Japan called it ‘Chinese pox.’
In the U.S., each year there are about 56,000 new cases of thyroid cancer, and the majority of those diagnoses are papillary thyroid cancer — the most common type of thyroid cancer. Some thyroid cancer signs and symptoms include a hoarse voice, neck pain, and enlarged lymph nodes. Although as much as 75% of the population will have thyroid nodules, the vast majority are benign. Thyroid cancer can occur in any age group and its aggressiveness increases significantly in older patients.
Females are more likely to have thyroid cancer at a ratio of 3:1. Fewer than 1% of all thyroid nodules are malignant (cancerous). A nodule that is cold on scan is more likely to be malignant. However, the majority of these are benign as well. Thyroid cancer does not always cause symptoms; often, the first sign of thyroid cancer is a thyroid nodule. Most thyroid cancers are very curable. In fact, the most common types of thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular thyroid cancer) are the most curable.
In younger patients, both papillary and follicular cancers have a more than 97% cure rate if treated appropriately.
Medical Billing Advocates of America, a group that helps patients handle medical bills, and Time Magazineanalyzed hundreds of bills from hospitals and revealed many overcharges on a patient’s itemized bill. For example, a Tylenol pill for $15, $53 for per pair of gloves, $8 for a grocery bag (to hold your personal items), $8 for a box of tissues, $53 for per non-sterile pair (sterile are higher), $10 for a plastic cup used to administer medicine, $23 for per alcohol swab, $17.50 for a color mark on the body for surgery, $20 for a blood pressure measurement,
$6.25 for a nurse to hand you medicine taken by mouth per instance, and $93.50 for cost of use of overhead light in operating room.
Hospital list prices aren't completely irrelevant; however, as they usually serve as a starting point for negotiations with commercial payers. Hospital charges are essentially their list prices for medical services, which are different from the actual amount of money insurers, patients or the government ends up paying hospitals in exchange for the services.
The prices on a hospital's chargemaster bear little relationship to the amount most patients are asked to pay. That's because commercial insurers or government (e.g; Medicare, Medicaid) negotiate discounts with healthcare providers on behalf of their members, and the costs are often less than the actual cost of care.
Hospitals' rising list prices primarily affect the uninsured and people with coverage but who seek care at hospitals outside of their insurance network. Many hospitals often allow low-income patients who are uninsured to receive free care or care for a reduced charge.
Gamblingaddiction triggers the same brain areas as drug and alcohol cravings.
Gambling addiction can have a devastating effect not just on patients, but also their families. It can result in people losing their job, and leave families and children homeless. The most commonly reported problematic forms of gambling
among the patients were electronicroulette and sports gambling.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.
The vast majority (85%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term tobacco smoking. More than half of people with lung cancer die within one year of being diagnosed. The lung cancer five-year survival rate (18%) is lower than many other leading cancer types, such as the colon (65%), breast (90%) and prostate (99%). The five-year survival rate for lung cancer is 55% for cases detected when the disease is still localized (within the lungs). However, only 16% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at an early stage.
For distant tumors (spread to other organs) the five-year survival rate is only 4%. Lung cancer occurred in around 1.8 million people globally and resulted in approximate 1.6 million deaths annually. There are around 415,000 Americans living with lung cancer today, and approximately 158,080 die
annually. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer is higher for men (51.7 per 100,000 persons) than for women (34.7 per 100,000 persons).
Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s; more than 5 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease
and around 93,500 people died annually (rank #: 6). The time from diagnosis to death varies — as little as 3 or 4 years if the person is older than 80 when diagnosed to as long as 10 or more years if the person is younger.
American attempt suicide an estimated 1 million time annually, and women are 3 times more likely to attempt suicide. For every 13 minutes one American dies by suicide, over 40,000 people die by
suicide every year. For every woman who dies by suicide, four men die by suicide, but women are 3 times more likely to attempt suicide. 90% of Americans who die by suicide had a diagnosable psychiatric disorder
at the time of their death. Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S.; 2nd leading cause of death for ages 10 to 24, and 5th leading cause of death for age 45 to 59. Firearms were the most common method of death by suicide, accounting for 51% of all suicide deaths, followed by suffocation (including hangings) at 25%
and poisoning at 17%.
Depression (major depressive disorder or clinical depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms
that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders that often lead to attempt suicide. 1 out of 6 people in the U.S. succumb
to clinical depression during their lifetime. Experiences with major depressive disorder includes depressed moods, decreased energy, trouble concentrating, lost interest in activities, guilt of feelings of hopelessness, sleep disturbances,
appetite changes and suicidal thoughts or attempts.
Women who take acetaminophenduring pregnancy are more likely to have a hyperactive child.
Hyperactive behavior (called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - ADHD) usually refers to constant activity, being easily distracted, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, aggressiveness, and similar behaviors.
Kids with ADHD have problems paying attention and sitting still in their seats, and they do things without thinking about the results. Hundreds of over-the-counter and prescription medications contain acetaminophen
A kidney stone is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys from minerals
in urine. Kidney stones typically leave the body in the urine stream, and a small stone may pass without causing symptoms,
otherwise it leads to pain. About 9% of the U.S. population has a kidney stone, and in 2013 about 15,000 deaths globally because of kidney stone disease.
Cataracts are most commonly due to aging, but may also occur due to trauma, radiation exposure, be present from birth,
occur following eye surgery, having diabetes, smoking tobacco, or prolonged exposure to sunlight, and alcohol.
About 20 million people globally are blind due to cataracts. Cataract removal/surgery is one of the most common operations performed in the United States.
It also is one of the safest and most effective types of surgery. In about 90 percent of cases, people who have cataract surgery have better vision afterward.
There are 7.6 million people died of cancer annually - 13% of all deaths worldwide. The most common types of cancer that kill men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophagus and the most common types of cancer that kill women are breast, lung, stomach, colorectal and cervical.
Benlysta is the only treatment on the market specifically for Lupus, a disease in which the body's immune system attacks healthy issue, including skin, joints, kidneys or the brain.
This prescription medicine is expensive; the patient needs to have at least 2 doses a month, each costs $3,330 per dose.
A human body has 206 bones, of which 54 in the hands and 52 in the feet.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), which is a newly viral respiratory illness to humans since 2102; people infected with MERS developed severe acute respiratory illness, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and many of them have died.
Diagnostic error is the leading cause of medical malpractice claims in the U.S., 5-15% of diagnoses are estimated to have errors with an average of 60,000 deaths annually.
Body temperature varied from person to person, at different times of day and for many other reasons besides illness. It tends to be about one degree higher during the day than in the middle of the night.
The normal human body temperature averages 98.6; a temperature above 100.4, regardless of the normal range for an individual, is considered a universal sign of fever and suggests an illness
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder
characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and
non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. As of 2010 the rate of autism is estimated at about 1–2 per 1,000 people worldwide, and it occurs
four to five times more often in boys than girls; about 1.5% of children in the United States (one in 68) are diagnosed with autism as of 2014, a 30% increase from one in 88 in 2012; around 1 in 100 children in the United Kingdom has
autism in 2014. There is no cure for autism; about 20 to 30 percent of children with autism develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood.
In 2012, 8,165 African Americans died because of HIV/AIDS; among whites and Latino people, 5,426 and 2,586 died, respectively.
In 2011, around 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S.; of which 491,110 were African Americans (41%) and 408,000 were whites (34%).
Rates of HIV/AIDS are growing fastest among gays, bisexual and black men; as per the CDC,
the percentage of HIV/AIDS patients in the U.S. are: 76% Male, 44% Black, 33% White, 24% Female, 19% Hispanic; 53% Male-to-Male Sex, 27% Male-to-Female Sex, and 15% Injection Drug Users.
For the years after HIV/AIDS was first identified in 1984, patients survived an average of only 18 months; now most AIDS patients do not die since the treatment is more advanced in the U.S.;
for example, in 2004 it took the average patient nearly three years of daily pill popping to reach undetectable virus levels; in 2013 it only took about three months;
as of today, 94% of HIV/AIDS-positive people in the city are aware of their disease, compared with 84% nationwide.
As per AIDS.gov, there were over 1.1 million Americans live with HIV/AIDS, but only 84% have been diagnosed, 37% have received
regular medical care, and 33% take anti-HIV/AIDS drugs.
The first HIV/AIDS case was reported in the U.S. in 1984, as of 2014 the disease has killed over 650,000 Americans; and at its peak, there were around 50,000
deaths from the AIDS virus per year; now the number is about 15,000.
As of 2014 the U.S. annually spent about $317 billion (which comes from medical expensive and disability payments) on caring for over 9.6 million adults with a serious mental illness.
The U.S. spent a combined $271.1 billion on prescription drugs in 2013, which comes to almost $1 for every $10 the country spends on health care.
Around 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. But a new study claims that
those who have slept with more than 20 women during their lifetime there is a 28% reduction in the risk of having prostate cancer (all types), and a 19% reduction for aggressive types of cancer.
Ebola, a viral disease, is not spread through the air, food, water or indirect contact with an infected person; it is transmitted only through direct contact with the bodily fluids, such as blood, diarrhea and vomit.
Ebola's symptoms include fever, severe headache, muscle and stomach pain, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting and unexplained bleeding and bruising; about 50% of people infected with Ebola died.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is a severe, often fatal illness in humans, outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests.
The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
Dr. Robert Jarvik implants a permanent artificial heart, the Jarvik 7, into retired dentist Barney Clark at the University of Utah on December 2, 1982. The heart, powered by an external compressor, keeps Dr. Clark alive for 112 days.
The next several implantations of the Jarvik-7 heart were conducted by Humana, a large health care insurance company. The second patient, William J. Schroeder, survived 620 days.
Colorectal cancer is the No. 2 killer in the US, reports the CDC, claiming more than 50,000 lives in 2013.
Lung, liver, stomach, colorectal and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year worldwide, accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012; about 30% of cancer deaths are due to high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol use.
The "flu" or the seasonal flu is caused by the influenza virus and causes mostly upper respiratory problems while the "stomach flu"
is often caused by a number of viruses and causes gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
About 25% of Asian-American adults have hypertension (i.e.; having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 millimeters (mm) mercury (Hg)). Of which there is about 5.0% for the 20–39 age group,
26.5% for the 40–59 age group, and 59.6% for the 60 and over age group. There are around 15.4 million Asian people in the U.S., which primarily comprise persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent.
Dehydration can cause body weakness. Difficulty focusing on the computer screen, short-term memory problems and trouble with basic math can be caused by a mere 2% drop in body water.
At around 5% to 6% water loss, one may become groggy or sleepy, experience headaches or nausea, and may feel tingling in one's limbs (paresthesia).
With 10% to 15% fluid loss, muscles may become spastic, skin may shrivel and wrinkle (decreased skin turgor), vision may dim, urination will be greatly reduced and may become painful, and delirium may begin. Losses greater than 15% are usually fatal.
The number of people diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the United States is around 300,000 with 96 percent of reported cases occurring in 13 states,
Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin.
Dr. Norman Edward Shumway (February 9, 1923 – February 10, 2006) was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University. Norman Shumway is widely regarded as the father of heart transplantation;
he successfully transplants a heart into 54-year-old steelworker Mike Kasperak, who survives for 14 days in 1968.
Avian influenza (AI), commonly called bird flu, is an infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as H5N1, have caused serious infections in people.
Leukemia, a cancer of the blood cells, not only causes the overproduction of white blood cells,
which help your body fight infection, but also reduces red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body.
Anxiety or panic attacks are often accompanied by chest pain,
most likely caused by muscle contractions in the chest wall. The common external factors can cause anxiety panic attacks are stress at work/school, stress in a personal relationship (e.g.; marriage, love), stress from an emotional trauma (e.g.; the death of a loved one), financial stress, stress from a serious medical illness, and side effect of medication.
Blood-thinning drugs, such as aspirin and
warfarin (Coumadin) or medications such as clopidogrel
(Plavix), which reduce your blood's ability to clot, are commonly used in the prevention of strokes; however, these medications can make you bruise more easily.
Plavix (which is used to prevent blood clots after a recent heart attack or stroke) plus aspirin (which is used lower the risk of forming a blood clot in the coronary arteries of the heart or brain) may be a risky combination.
The population of people having blood type A include 40% of whites, 26% of blacks, 31% of Hispanics and 28% of Asians; type B: 11% of whites, 19% of blacks,
10% of Hispanics and 25% of Asians; type AB: 4% of whites, 4% of blacks, 2% of Hispanics and 7% of Asians; and type O: 45% of whites, 51% of blacks, 57% of Hispanics and 40% of Asians.
If you are watching too much TV, lacking physical activity, unchecking depression, ignoring snoring, ignoring high blood pressure, not regularly cleaning teeth, withdrawing from the world, smoking, drinking (too much) alcohol, overeating, eating (too much) red meat and salty food, and/or
avoiding eating fruits and vegetables, you will have cardiovascular disease at some times in your lifetime.
The more you exercise, the better your body handles blood sugar and insulin, which results in warding off diabetes.
The top 10 causes of death in high-income countries are
Ischaemic heart disease (1.42m deaths in 2008; 15.6%),
Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (0.79m; 8.7%),
Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers (0.54m, 5.9%),
Alzheimer and other dementias (0.37m, 4.1%),
Lower respiratory infections (0.35m, 3.8%),
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.32m, 3.5%),
Colon and rectum cancers (0.30m, 3.3%),
Diabetes mellitus (0.24m, 2.6%),
Hypertensive heart disease (0.21m, 2.3%), and
Breast cancer (0.17m, 1.9%).
The top 10 causes of death in middle-income countries are
Ischaemic heart disease (5.27m deaths in 2008, 13.7%),
Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (4.91m, 12.8%),
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.79m, 7.2%),
Lower respiratory infections (2.07m, 5.4%),
Diarrhoeal diseases (1.68m, 4.4%),
HIV/AIDS (1.03m, 2.7%),
Road traffic accidents (0.94m, 2.4%),
Tuberculosis (0.93m, 2.4%),
Diabetes mellitus (0.87m, 2.3%), and
Hypertensive heart disease (0.83m, 2.2%).
The top 10 causes of death in low-income countries are
Lower respiratory infections (1.05m deaths in 2008, 11.3%),
Diarrhoeal diseases (0.76m, 8.2%),
HIV/AIDS (0.72m, 7.8%),
Ischaemic heart disease (0.57m, 6.1%),
Malaria (0.48m, 5.2%),
Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (0.45m, 4.9%),
Tuberculosis (0.40m, 4.3%),
Prematurity and low birth weight (0.30m, 3.2%),
Birth asphyxia and birth trauma (0.27m, 2.9%), and
Neonatal infections (0.24m, 2.6%).
Globally, there are around 235 million people
suffered from asthma, a chronic disease of the the air passages of the lungs which inflames and narrows them. Most asthma-related deaths occur in low- and lower-middle income countries.
The human feet have 52 bones, which is 25% of all the bones in the body. The foot is an intricate structure containing 26 bones with thirty-three joints,
107 ligaments, 19 muscles and multiple tendons that hold the structure together and allow it to move in a variety of ways.
If you started troubling memory loss, difficulty completing routine tasks or confusion, such as momentarily forgetting where your office is, missing standing appointments, becoming confused in your field of expertise,
regularly forgetting paying bills, or becoming disoriented in a system you had once mastered, you may have Alzheimer’s.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. Although treatments for HIV/AIDS can slow the course of the disease, there is no cure for HIV infection.
There are around 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2.0 million annual deaths due to AIDS. Around 60 million people have been infected worldwide since the start of the pandemic in 1981, with some 25 million deaths.
Being diagnosed with HIV does not mean a person will also be diagnosed with AIDS, which is the late stage of HIV infection, when a person’s immune system is
severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers. The early symptoms and signs of AIDS include night sweats, prolonged fevers, severe weight loss, persistent diarrhea, skin rash, persistent cough, and shortness of breath.
HIV is spread primarily by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV; having multiple sex partners; sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare
illicit drugs for injection; being born to an infected mother, being “stuck” with an HIV-contaminated needle; receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that
are contaminated with HIV; eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person; being bitten/deeply kissed by a person with HIV; or tattooing or body piercing present a potential risk of HIV transmission.
The human body is 61.8 percent water by weight. Protein accounts for 16.6 percent, fat 14.9 percent, and nitrogen 3.3 percent. The remaining3.4% is for other elements.
Sex can indeed trigger heart attacks in some people, especially men, the odds of literally succumbing to passion are very low - less than 1% .
20% reduction of heart-disease risk for those who most frequently got vigorous exercise, such as running, jogging, swimming laps, playing tennis, doing aerobics, or walking six miles or more a week.
There are 7 symptoms that suggest you have kidney damage: swelling (edema), poor appetite, weight loss, weakness, feeling tired, nausea or vomiting, and trouble sleeping.
There are a number of cancer symptoms that men are likely to ignore.
These include upset stomach or stomachache; chronic "acid stomach" or feeling full after a small meal; unexplained weight loss; jaundice; wheezing or shortness of breath;
chronic cough or chest pain; frequent fevers or infections; difficulty swallowing; chronic heartburn; swelling of facial features; swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck; underarm, or groin, excessive bruising or bleeding that doesn't stop;
weakness and fatigue; rectal bleeding or blood in stool; bowel problems; difficulty urinating or changes in flow; pain or burning during urination; blood in urine or semen; erection problems; pain, aching, or heaviness in the groin, hips, thighs, or abdomen;
testicular swelling or lump; unexplained back pain; scaly or painful nipple or chest, nipple discharge; a sore or skin lump that doesn't heal, becomes crusty, or bleeds easily; and changes in nails.
There are a number of cancer symptoms women are likely to ignore. These include wheezing or shortness of breath; chronic cough or chest pain;
swallowing problems or hoarseness; frequent fevers or infections swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck, underarm, or groin; bloating or abdominal weight gain -- the "my jeans don't fit" syndrome; feeling full and unable to eat; pelvic or abdominal pain;
unusually heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods; rectal bleeding or blood in stool; upset stomach or stomachache; a red, sore, or swollen breast; nipple changes; excessive bruising or bleeding that doesn't stop;
weakness and fatigue; unexplained weight loss; swelling of facial features; a sore or skin lump that doesn't heal, becomes crusty, or bleeds easily; changes in nails; and pain in the back or lower right side.
People who had depression at some point in their lives were about a third more likely to suffer a stroke than those who haven't been depressed.
If you were admitted to hospital your chances of being subjected to an error (no dying) in your care would be something like 1 in 10. Your chances of dying due to an error in health care would be 1 in 300.
In the U.S. prostate cancer is a common cancer affecting 17% of men who are older than 65; 3% of old men died because of this disease
annually. There are some symptoms of this disease: urinary problems (e.g.; urgency, frequency, hesitancy, pain during urination), difficult in penile erection, painful ejaculation, blood in urine or semen, pelvic discomfort, frequent pain in lower back, belly or hip, swelling in the legs.
Eat properly, drink fluids, consume fresh fruits and vegetables, chose a diet high in fiber and whole grains, avoid too much red, processed meats, avoid smoking, maintain a healthy weight, stay active, exercise and take Aspirin or Non-Steoidals (NSAISs) can lower risk of
33% of American children (of which 40% of African American and Hispanic) are overweight or obese.
People who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and other health problems.
As of 2/20/2011, more than 110,000 Americans are listed as waiting for organs, including 87,995 for kidneys; 16,108 for liver; 3,209 for heart; 1,802 for lung; 1,398 for pancreas; and 258 for intestine.
26,213 transplants were performed in the U.S. between January 2010 and November 2010. Average number of days that Americans wait for a transplant is 1,269 for kidney; 319 for liver; 168 for heart; 148 for lung; 260 for pancreas; and 142 for intestine.
Around 88,000 Americans need kidneys each year. However, only about 17,000 get kidneys, and more than 4,600 die because they did not get one in time.
People suffered from mild hypertension, which is a blood pressure reading of no higher than 160/100 mm Hg, took a 81-milligram tablet of aspirin in the evening had a significant reduction in their blood pressure. Those who took the aspirin in the morning had no reduction at all.
Heart attack, cardiac arrest and stroke generally often occur in early morning hours (between 5:00 AM and 12:00 PM) when the agreeability of thrombocytes is higher. A daily baby aspirin pill (81 mg), often recommended to lower the risks of heart disease,
can also reduce high blood pressure -- but only if it's taken at bedtime.
In the U.S. every year surgeons performed more than a million hip and knee replacements. In 2008, number of joint replacements for knees was 616,617, hips (total): 277,399;
hips (partial): 108,491; shoulder (total): 26,178; shoulder (partial): 20,178; hand/finger/wrist: 2,338; and ankle: 1,554. Many patients will need to repair or replace their replacements 10 t0 20 years later.
Scientists have developed a blood test that could find a single cancer cell circulating in a person's blood.
The test will be used by oncologists as a diagnostic tool aimed at discovering as early as possible if a cancer has spread.
Allergies affect around 50 million people in the U.S. Dust mites cause allergies in about 20 million people, and about 10 million people are allergic by cats.
Stress symptoms commonly include exhaustion, irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physiological reactions, such as sleeplessness, headache and elevated heart rate.
Stress is hurting physical and emotional health and contributing to some of the leading causes of death. Today 1 out of every 4 American are dealing with extremely high stress levels. The top 10
stress factors are money, work, economy, family responsibilities, relationships, personal health concerns, housing costs, job stability, health problems affecting the family, and
A new report released on November 10, 2010 by the CDC found that around 49.9 million Americans aged 18-64 went at least part
of the last twelve months without health care insurance coverage.
As of today about 24 million U.S. adults have diabetes, most of them
type-2 diabetes linked strongly with poor diet and lack of exercise. Diabetes was the seventh-leading cause of death in the U.S.,
and is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults under age 75, as well as kidney failure, and leg and foot amputations not caused by injury.
In addition to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes, aspirin can also lower the risk
of colon cancer, which is the second most common form of cancer in developed countries after lung
cancer. Especially, aspirin benefits people who have the heart disease or high blood pressure, and people who already had a heart attack or a stroke.
Lung cancer, a serious illness, is the major cause of death in the U.S. Early screening for this disease is not as effective as it is with
prostate cancers. It is also more resistant to treatment than some other cancers.
Palliative care, which helps the gravely ill make the most of the time they have left, provided a surprising bonus for terminal
lung cancer patients. The patients who started soon after their diagnosis on palliative care along with usual cancer care lived nearly three months longer than people given only
standard cancer care. More than half of lung cancer patients have incurable diseases by the time they are diagnosed.
Pregnant women with epilepsy, particularly those on anti-seizure medications, may have higher rates of cesarean section and heavy bleeding after delivery than other women.
Young people with the kind of irregular heartbeat (known as a trial fibrillation) may be better off undergoing surgery to fix the problem instead of taking medication first.
The controversial diabetes pill Avandia has caused as many as 100,000 heart attacks, strokes, deaths and cases of heart failure in the U.S. European regulators ordered it off the market. FDA announces major restrictions on which patients can get Avandia.
Drugs, such as Nexium,
Prevacid, that are supposed to treat frequent heartburn could be increasing people's risk of hip, spine, and wrist fractures. These drugs will change the way their body absorbs calcium that leads to less-dense bones, which can increase
the risk of fractures.
Cutting sugar intake by 130 calories a day—the amount in one 12-ounce can of regular soda—may help lower blood pressure.
Cutting back on calories from sugary beverages -- by only one serving per day -- accounted for nearly two-and-a-half pounds of lost weight over 18 months.
If you bleach your teeth too often, it can thin the
enamel. Your teeth can end up almost
Diabetes can cause heart disease, kidney failure, limb amputations and blindness
Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce or unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). It is a major risk factor for heart disease. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes.
As of 3/2011 more than 25 million Americans have diabetes (more than 90% have Type 2), but an additional 79 million people have pre-diabetes, in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes.
Adults with pre-diabetes who lost 7% of their body weight can reduce their risk of diabetes by 58%
In 2009 diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. for people aged 25 years and older; 23.6 million people in the U.S. have diabetes; 11.2% of men and 10.2% of women have diabetes.
Black, Hispanics and American Indians have higher rates of diabetes
Diabetes is a silent disease. However, there are some symptoms of this disease: weight loss, increased urination, excessive thirst, fatigue and irritability, blurry vision tingling/numbness, hunger, skin problems, slow healing, and/or Candida infections.
Stroke is the number three killer in the US, affecting almost 800,000 people each year.
Top risks for a stroke include high-fat diet, being single, being unhappy, being obese, smoking, and being born in the wrong demographic.
The hardest working muscle is the heart. It pumps out 2 ounces (71 grams) of blood at every heartbeat. Daily the heart pumps at least 2,500 gallons (9,450
liters) of blood. The heart has the ability to beat over 3 billion times in a person’s life.
Breast cancer survivors who take aspirin regularly may be less likely to die
or have their cancer return. Aspirin has relatively benign adverse effects compared with cancer chemotherapeutic drugs and may also prevent colon cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke.
Both parents’ ages linked to autism risk. When the father was over 40 and the mother under 30, the increased risk was 59 percent greater than for younger men.
By contrast, when the father was over 40 and the mother 30 or older, the risk of autism rose 13 percent.
Having high blood pressure (HBP) and
coronary artery disease (CAD) puts you at a greater risk of a
heart attack or
stroke. You can have HBP for years without knowing it because HBP itself usually has no symptoms. If your blood pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage your
kidneys, and other parts of your body. The numbers in a blood pressure reading include Systolic and
Diastolic. Systolic (the top number) is the maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting or squeezing. Diastolic (the bottom number) represents the pressure in the
arteries when the heart is at rest. The recommended blood pressure goal is below 140/90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). If your blood pressure is above that level, you may have HBP. The most common of medications to treat HBP in people who have CAD is
Beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate, reduce the heart's output of blood, and decrease the force of the heart beat.
Cardiovascular disease (CDV) killed 864,480 American in 2005; 151,000 of CDV deaths were under age 65. 16.8 million Americans
had a heath attack or angina; 6.5 million Americans had a stroke; 5.7 million live with heart failure; 309,000 Americans died from sudden heart attack.
Sugar intake linked to heart disease - Just like eating a high-fat diet can increase your levels of triglycerides and high cholesterol, eating sugar can also affect those same lipids.
About 10,000 blood centers in 168 countries report collecting a total of 108 million blood donations globally, of which around 50% is collected in the high-income countries, home to 18% of the world’s population.
One of major factors caused the cardiovascular disease is higher levels of
cholesterol and triglycerides. Cholesterol and triglycerides are necessary for our life. While cholesterol is essential for body to work properly, triglycerides provide the fuel needed for body cells to function. Total cholesterol (TC) is an estimated measure bad cholesterol (LDL), good cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides.
TC = LDL + HDL + (Triglycerides/5). Goal: less than 200 mg/DL for TC.
LDL, or bad cholesterol, carried cholesterol to tissues in your body. Higher levels of LDL in your blood mean that cholesterol is being stick to your artery walls.
The arteries may develop a fatty buildup called atherosclerosis. Goal: less than 100 mg/dL
for LDL. HDL, or good cholesterol, carried cholesterol away tissues in your body. Higher levels of HDL in your blood mean that cholesterol is being
carried away from artery walls to the liver and then eliminated from the body. Goal:
greater than 60 mg/dL for HDL. Triglycerides are another fatty substance in the blood. Higher levels of
triglycerides in your blood mean larger thickening of the artery walls, which causes higher risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease.
Goal: less than 150 mg/dL for Triglycerides. Some commonly prescribed medications lowering your cholesterol are:
There are 30 different blood types. However, most people have blood types: O, A, B and AB. Type O blood is the most common, it can help other Os and also people with AB, A and B blood types.
The next common one is type A, which can help other As and also people with AB blood types. Type B is one of the rarest blood types, it can help people with B, O, A and AB blood types.
Type AB is the rarest blood type of 4 common ones, it can help people with AB, O, B and A blood types. The major common blood types in the U.S. include O+: 37.4%; O-: 6.6%; A+: 35.7%; A-: 6.3%; B+ 8.5%; B-: 1.5%; AB+: 3.4% and AB-: 0.6%.
Around 60 million people died by the Spanish flu of 1918-’19; as many as
16 million people may have died in India alone.
The Asian flu (H2N2) pandemic of 1957-’58 killed 69,800 people in the US and two million worldwide. Another avian strain (H3N2),
known as the Hong Kong flu, killed 33,800 people in the US and 700,000 worldwide in 1968-’69. About 300 people around the world were infected by that strain of avian flu (H5N1, also SARS) in 2003 and more than half of them died.
As of July 6, 2009, Novel influenza A (H1N1) has infected 94,512 people and killed 429 in 84 countries,
of which, there were 33,902 cases, 170 deaths in the U.S. There are approximately 226,000 people are hospitalized each year due to seasonal influenza
and 36,000 died in the U.S. As many as 80 million Americans have been infected with H1N1 swine flu, up to 16,000 have been killed and more than 360,000 hospitalized in the U.S. as of 1/15/2010.
People who lost their jobs between September 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 can keep COBRA coverage under their former employer's plan for up to 18 months.
The economic-stimulus plan
provides a 65% subsidy for COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) premiums for up to 9 months for people who were laid off during this period
to find out if you qualify, go to dol.gov or call 866-444-3272.
If you have no insurance and/or your family has a low income, you and your family are eligible for joining the Partnership for Prescription Assistance (pparx.com), a
coalition of pharmaceutical companies, healthcare providers, and patient advocacy groups that helps patients get free or discounted medications. Typically, as a member you can receive free medications or pays only $4 for a generic thyroid prescription.
If you've ever been hospitalized, do not make any decisions before you have received, and analyzed, all the bills. Once you've determined what you can afford, ask the hospital's credit officer for interest-free payments. If
the debt is truly unwieldy, ask for the Medicare rate (not the insurance rate) or a charity write-off.
There were a number of drug companies that paid billions of dollars
to the U.S. government to settle their bad practices on drugs, such as providing wrong advertisements, illegally encouraging doctors to prescribe unapproved drugs to patients, and manipulating prices to overcharge state and federal programs. Between 2006 and 2011, over 130 settlements were made, in which the most well-known ones were
Glaxo-SmithKline paid $3 billion in 2011, and
Eli Lilly paid $2.3 billion and $1.4 billion, respectively, in 2009.
In 2008, an estimated 57 million people died throughout the world. Of 1000 people died, 159 would have come from high-income countries, 677 from middle-income countries and 163 from low-income countries.
In 2008, cardiovascular (schaemic heart) diseases killed 7.3 million people worldwide, of which 6.2 million from stroke or another form of cerebrovascular disease.
Throughout the world in 2008, more than 8 million deaths were among children under five years of age, and 99% of them were in low- and middle-income countries.
FDA.Gov: Medication Guides
- Medication Guides address issues that are specific to particular drugs and drug classes, and they contain FDA-approved information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events.
- Health reform puts American families and small business owners in control of their own health care.
- Healthy People provides science-based, 10-year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans.
- Health.gov, a government Web site that provides health information for individuals and families.
- HealthFinder.gov, a government website where you will find information and tools to help you and those you care about stay healthy.
- WomensHealth.gov, a government Web site that provides health information for women.
- GirlsHealth.gov, a government Web site that help girls (ages 10 to 16) learn about health, growing up, and issues they may face.
- AHRQ.gov, a government Web site that provides about healthcare research and quality.
Harvard School of Public Health
- The Harvard School of Public Health has been at the forefront of efforts to benefit the health of populations worldwide. Its landmark discoveries and world-class graduates have saved lives and lifted the burden of disease around the globe.
- MedicineNet.com, an online, healthcare media publishing company, provides the trusted source for online health and medical information for consumers.
- An online resource supporting Service Members, their Families, and Veterans, with common post-deployment concerns. The website provides self-care solutions targeting post-traumatic stress, depression, anger, sleep, relationship concerns, and other mental health challenges.
National Center for Telehealth & Technology
- An organization enhances the quality of life for service members, veterans and their families by bringing treatment tools and information as close as their telephones,
smart phones, and computers.
- The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) - a non–governmental, official public standards–setting authority for medicines sold in the United States - provides safe harbors for manufacturers of medicines, dietary supplements, and
other health care products, helping them to comply with regulatory requirements.
- Provides information about diseases, conditions, and wellness issues. These include directories, a medical encyclopedia and a medical dictionary,
easy-to-understand tutorials on common conditions, tests, and treatments, health information, extensive information on prescription and nonprescription drugs, health information
from the media, and links to thousands of clinical trials.
- Provides information about infectious diseases, travel medicine and epidemiology. provides users with credible, reliable health information on
data and statistics, diseases and conditions, emergencies and disasters, environmental health, healthy living, injury, violence and safety, life stages and populations,
workplace safety and health, travelers' health, and more.
- Provides information about drugs. The agency is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy
and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.
- Provides information about cancer with respect to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and
the continuing care of cancer patients and the families of cancer patients.
- Take health care into your own hands, explore insurance coverage options and learn about how the Affordable Care Act impacts you. Find information for individuals, families, senior citizens, people with disabilities, young adults
Health Care in America
- America's $2.2-trillion-a-year medical complex is enormously wasteful, ill-targeted, inefficient, and unfair. The best medical care is extremely good,
but the rest is bad and falling apart. CDC is trying to examine how American health care utilization is changing and what data gaps exist in its understanding of the evolving
health care delivery system in America. A proposal ...
Innerbody - Interactive Human Anatomy
- Study the anatomy of the human body is fun. You can understand how the following parts of your body work - Appendix, Bladder, Brain, Gallbladder, Female genitals, Heart, Kidneys, Large intestine,
Liver, Lungs, Male genitals, Pancreas, Skin, Spleen, Small intestine, Stomach, Voice box,...
The New Medicine
- Explores the need for medicine to move away from an entrenched culture of drugs and surgery to focus more on prevention and engaging
people as active players in their own healthcare - the importance of listening, comforting, and encouraging the body’s own healing abilities.
NPR: Health & Science
- Prognosis Negative Again for Medicare - Better Tests Needed to Control Tuberculosis - Why Kids Curse - Tool Reassesses Osteoporosis Risk -
For Spring, an Attempt to Forgo Meat - Stopping Deaths From Incorrect Drug Doses - How to Get a Good Night's Sleep...
Live Longer, Better Wiser - How To Live To 100
- With advance in medicine, healthier eating habits, less smoking and doing exercises,
people have a greater possibility of living longer than at any time in the previous generations. This includes eating a heart-healthy diet, staying connected and current keeps
brain working, watching your waist, drinking moderately (e.g.; tea, wine intake, coffee), making friends at work, and more...
Ask The Expert
- Questions & Answers About Medicine
- Doctors Lounge is one of the most popular online medical resources for physicians, students and allied clinical professionals.
It provides clinical information through multimedia tutorials and other study aids. Both patients and professionals can seek answers to medical questions via
the public discussion medical forums.
Health Central -
- Provides medical information for patients and caregivers, and fosters a rich community of patients and experts who share their experiences,
"real-world" learning and support as they manage their day-to-day lives & health.
-Provides information about cholesterol related diseases such as atherosclerosis and cardiac heart disease, and conducts heart programs focused on Stress, Burnout, Test Anxiety, Weight Reduction, Gateway Program.
The American Journal of Medicine
- "The Green Journal" publishes original clinical research of interest to
physicians in internal medicine, both in academia and community-based practice. It is the official journal of
The Association of Professors of Medicine, a prestigious group comprised of chairs of departments of internal
medicine at more than 125 medical schools across the country.
Graduates in 2000
Graduates in 2011
Growth Rate of Graduates
Number of Schools in 2000
Number of Schools in 2013
Growth Rate of Schools
Doctors Delivering Primary Care
Students' Average MCAT Score (2011-2012)
Students' Average GPA (2011-2012)
Non-cancerous tumors called fibroids and endometriosis, the abnormal growth of the lining of a woman's uterus, can lead to a miscarriage.
2. Higher Risk of any Chromosomal Disorder
At age 20: 1 in 526 births
At age 30: 1 in 385 births
At age 40: 1 in 66 births
At age 45: 1 in 21 births
Women are born with all the eggs they'll ever have. As a woman ages, her eggs also age. All genetic abnormalities increase as the egg gets older. The eggs are stored in the ovaries, and there is a potential for change over time.
3. Higher Risk of Down Syndrome
At age 25: 1 in 1,250 births
At age 30: 1 in 1,000 births
At age 35: 1 in 400 births
At age 40: 1 in 100 births
At age 45: 1 in 30 births
At age 50: 1 in 10 births
As a woman ages, the risk of delivering a baby with Down syndrome increases. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder often caused by an error in cell division. There are multiple types of Down syndrome, and the exact cause is not known.
4. Higher Risk of Gestational Diabetes
At age 20: 22 in 1,000 women
At age 25: 36 in 1,000 women
At age 30: 51 in 1,000 women
At age 35: 67 in 1,000 women
At age 40: 84 in 1,000 women
Pregnancy stresses the body, requiring the pancreas to produce more insulin. In older women, having a baby can trigger diabetes during pregnancy. As we get older our pancreas is less able to respond to those stressors.
5. Higher Risk of Pre-eclampsia
At age 20: 38 in 1,000 women
At age 25: 37 in 1,000 women
At age 30: 36 in 1,000 women
At age 35: 39 in 1,000 women
At age 40: 48 in 1,000 women
Pre-eclampsia is a sometimes deadly condition of pregnancy marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine. Often when a mother has pre-eclampsia, the baby needs to be delivered prematurely to save the lives of mother and baby.
Women as they get into their 40s may also have some hypertension already, and if they do, they have a higher risk of that being exacerbated during pregnancy.
Morning Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetics
Insulin is a hormone produced by the
pancreas to control
blood sugar (Glucose).
Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.
Glucose is vital to the human body because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. Chronic diabetes conditions include
type 1 diabetes and
type 2 diabetes.
When there is too much glucose in blood, it is classified as type 1 diabetes. When blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 1 diabetes, it is called type 2 diabetes. After many years, diabetes can cause many serious problems, such as eye problems
(which may lead to blind), foot/leg problems (which may be removed), heart attack, stroke, pain, tingling, loss of feeling, nerve damage, which causes digesting food problems, weakness, erection issues, and kidney damage.
Hypertension, or high blood pressure (HBP), has no noticeable symptoms.
Having HBP and coronary artery disease (CAD) puts you at a greater risk of a
heart attack or
stroke. You can have HBP for years without knowing it because HBP itself usually
has no symptoms. If your blood pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage your
kidneys, and other parts of your body. The numbers in a blood pressure reading
include Systolic and
Diastolic. Systolic (the top number) is the maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting or squeezing. Diastolic (the bottom number) represents the pressure in the
arteries when the heart is at rest. The recommended blood pressure goal is below 140/90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). If your blood pressure is above that level, you may have HBP.
The most common of medications to treat HBP in people who have CAD is
Beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate, reduce the heart's output of blood, and decrease the force of the heart beat.
There are many different medicines that can be used to treat high blood pressure; these include Alpha blockers, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Central alpha agonists, Diuretics, Renin inhibitors, including aliskiren (Tekturna), and Vasodilators.
There are about 100 prescribed medications for high blood pressure.
1. Stroke/Carotid Artery Ultrasound Test - Carotid ultrasound shows whether a waxy substance called plaque (plak) has built up in your carotid arteries. The buildup of plaque in the carotid arteries is called carotid artery disease.
The ultrasound test identifies plaque buildup in the carotid arteries, which is a leading cause of stroke.
2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Ultrasound - An aneurysm
(AN-u-rism) is a balloon-like bulge in an artery. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your body. The ultrasound
test checks for aneurysms in the abdomen. The danger lies in the risk of the aneurysm bursting or rupturing.
3. Electrocardiogram (EKG) - An electrocardiogram (e-lek-tro-KAR-de-o-gram), also called an EKG or ECG, is a simple, painless test that records the heart's electrical activity, which may predict pending heart attack.
4. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) Test - Peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.) is a disease in which plaque (plak) builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs.
Leg cramps due to poor circulation could indicate something more serious. This screening measures the extremities for peripheral arterial disease.
5. Harding of the Arteries (ASI) Test - The Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI) measures the flexibility or hardening of the arteries. The
stiffer the arteries, the harder the heart has to work and the more long-term damage it will sustain.
B. Ultrasound of the Heart
Echocardiogram Ultrasound Test - Echocardiography (EK-o-kar-de-OG-rah-fee), or echo, is a painless test that uses sound waves to create moving pictures of your heart.
The pictures show the size and shape of your heart. They also show how well your heart's chambers and valves are working.. This ultrasound test is done to evaluate the valves and chambers of the heart in a noninvasive way and may detect enlargement
of the heart, valve abnormalities, blood clots, tumors and more.
C. Major Heart Tests
1. Physical Stress Test - Stress test provides information about how your heart works during physical stress.
It is used to determine the amount of stress that your heart can manage before developing either an abnormal rhythm or evidence of ischemia (not enough blood flow to the heart muscle).
2. Nuclear Stress Test (also called as "Cardiolyte" or "Thallium" or "Adenosine") - Nuclear stress test measures blood flow to your heart muscle both at rest and during stress on the heart.
It's performed similarly to a routine exercise stress test, but provides images that can show areas of low blood flow through the heart and areas of damaged heart muscle
Overused Tests & Procedures
Repeat colonoscopies within 10 years of a first test
Early imaging for most back pain
Brain scans for patients who fainted but didn't have seizures
Antibiotics for mild- to-moderate sinusitis unless symptoms last for seven or more days or worsen
Stress cardiac imaging or advanced non-invasive imaging in the initial evaluation of patients without cardiac symptoms unless high-risk markers are present
PAP smears on women younger than 21 or who have had a hysterectomy for a non-cancer disease
Advanced imaging or bone scans in patients with early-stage breast or low-grade prostate cancer
Bone scan screening for osteoporosis in women younger than 65 or men younger than 70 with no risk factors
Routine cancer screening on dialysis patients with limited life expectancies
Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the colon (large intestine), that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is usually constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. The signs of cancer may include:
Cramping and Abdominal Pain;
Frequency of Symptoms.
These signs can be caused by ulcerative colitis or by other problems. It's important to see a doctor if any of these symptoms occurs frequently. Don't wait for symptoms to become painful.
There are more than 100 different types of cancer, but they all are a group of diseases of body's cells. When
normal cells lose their ability to limit and grow disorderly, their tissues will be produced too much
and tumors begin to form. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not cancer; malignant tumors are cancer. The signs of cancer may include:
Change in bladder or bowel habits;
A sore that does not heal;
Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere;
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing;
Obvious change in a mole or wart;
Nagging cough or hoarseness.
These signs can be caused by cancer or by other problems. It's important to see a doctor if any of these symptoms lasts over 15 days. Don't wait for symptoms to become painful; pain is not an early sign of cancer.
The coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. According to the CDC,
About 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. More than half of the deaths due to heart disease in 2009 were in men.
Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing more than 385,000 people annually.
Every year about 715,000 Americans have a heart attack. Of these, 525,000 are a first heart attack and 190,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack.
Coronary heart disease alone costs the United States $108.9 billion each year. This total includes the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity.
About 47% of sudden cardiac deaths occur outside a hospital.
High blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease. About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factors.
Several other medical conditions and lifestyle choices can also put people at a higher risk for heart disease, including: diabetes, overweight and obesity, poor diet, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol use.
Lightheadedness and shortness of breath without or without chest discomfort.
Discomfort in other areas of the body; symptoms can include pain, numbness, tingling or discomfort in one or both arms (especially the left one), jaw, neck, stomach, back, nausea and/or vomiting.
(Women are more likely than men to have neck and shoulder pain along with other symptoms).
Chest discomfort or pain that is crushing or squeezing in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or squeezing or feels like a heavy weight on the chest, or this goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.
Fact action can save lives; don't wait more than five minutes to call 911.